Yogyakarta, also Jogjakarta, lies 18 miles (29 km) inland from the southern Java coast and near Mount Merapi (9,551 feet [2,911 m]). It is situated on Java Island, about 500 km southeast of Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia.

Yogyakarta was founded in 1755, when the Sultanate of Mataram, which had been in existence since the 8th century, was divided by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) under the Treaty of Giyanti into two parts: the Sultanate of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, with Yogyakarta as its capital, and Surakarta Hadiningrat, with Surakarta as its capital.

A month after the signing of the Giyanti Agreement, precisely on Thursday, the 29th of November, March 1680 Sura or March 13, 1755, Sultan Hamengku Buwana I proclaimed the establishment of the Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate with the capital of Ngayogyakarta and owned half of the Mataram Kingdom. This proclamation took place in Pesanggrahan Ambarketawang and was known as the Hadeging Nagari Dalem Kasultanan Mataram - Ngayogyakarta. On Thursday, on the 3rd day of sura 1681 or on October 9, 1755, Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwana I ordered the construction of the Ngayogyakarta Palace in Pacethokan Village in Beringan Forest, which was originally named Garjitawati.

The construction of the capital of the Yogyakarta Sultanate takes one year. On Thursday the 13th of Sura 1682 coincided with the 7th of October 1756, Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwana I and his family moved out or boyongan from Pesanggrahan Ambarketawan into the Kraton Ngayogyakarta. This transfer event was marked by a candlelight chant memet Dwi Naga Rasa Tunggal in the form of two dragons whose two tails wrapped around each other and engraved on banon / joint color baturana Kagungan Dalem Regol Kemagangan and Regol Gadhung Mlathi. The momentum of this move was used as the basis for determining Yogyakarta City Anniversary because starting from that time a variety of supporting facilities and buildings to accommodate government activities both social, political, economic, cultural and residential activities began to be built in stages. Based on all of that, Yogyakarta City Anniversary was determined on October 7, 2009 and strengthened by Yogyakarta City Regional Regulation Number 6 of 2004